Liability Insurance: Definitions and Terms

Definition of Liability Insurance: The simplest definition of ‘liability insurance’ is the Insurance coverage to protect against claims alleging that one’s negligence or inappropriate action resulted in bodily injury or property damage.

People & organizations can and do mistakes for which they become liable if and when these acts ruled to be the cause for damaging the bodies or the properties of others. This is when insurance policies come to provide the protection. Liability coverage pays when the insured is legally liable for the negligent act. In some situations, the coverage provides protection if the insured becomes ‘morally obligated’ to a party that is damaged by the non-negligent acts of the insured.

People/ organizations vary widely in their social and business conduct, and so does the coverage that is needed to protect them. For each category of people/ organizations there are different coverages that provide the protections. Different people/ organizations need different types/ amounts of liability coverage.

Classification of Liability

Personal vs Commercial Liability: Personal liability insurance provides coverage for individuals while commercial liability provides coverage for a business entity. A 4-door sedan car needs personal auto liability policy. If the same vehicle is used for delivery, then it may require a commercial auto policy.

Personal Liability Protection normally comes in personal policies such as Personal Auto Policies (PAPs), Homeowners Insurance Policies, boat policies, and Personal Umbrellas. These coverages pay for damages that the Insured causes to the bodily injuries, personal injuries, property damages, legal defense in connection with claims brought against the Insured.

Business/ Commercial Liability Protection: Comes to cover businesses and/or individuals in connection with their business conducts.

Premises Liability applies when someone other than the insured or insured’s employees sues the business for damages due to an injury sustained in business premises. This means that the injured party must first suffer an injury on your premises, and then must make a claim for the damages they suffered.

Product Liability includes liability protection for business completed products or services. Similar coverage is provided under the term ‘completed operations’ such as operations of many contractors in the event that they cause damages to others in the course of their service rendering. Professional service businesses such as physicians, lawyers, real estate brokers, and insurance agents have special professional liability coverages.

Professional Liability. Provides protection for many classes of individuals and businesses for any bodily injury damages their service/ advice may cause to others. Examples include malpractice insurance for doctors and medical staff, errors & omissions for insurance & real estate agents, etc.

Employer’s Liability provides coverage for employees during their employment. The employer has to be at fault or negligent for the coverage to kick in. In the case of Workers Compensation, fault and negligence do not have to be proved for employee to collect for any work related injury.

Director’s and Officers insurance provides protection against any lawsuits against the officers of the business by its owners. Garage Liability applies in situations where a business deals with vehicles owned by others. The coverage provides protection from the risks of being sued because of using vehicles owned by the business and vehicles that are owned by others (clients.) In the event that a business/ individual works with or takes possession of other people’s vehicles, a special coverage called “Garage Keeper Liability” is needed. Garage Keeper Liability provides comprehensive and collision coverage on vehicles NOT owned by the business while the vehicles are in possession of the business. Auto service stations, valet parking businesses, towing services, and car washes are examples of businesses that need garage liability and garage keeper liability protection. Garage keeper liability can be written on Direct Basis or Excess. In the even of Direct Basis, the policy will pay for damages of vehicles of the clients of the Insured regardless of who is at fault. In the case of Excess, the policy will pay for damages of vehicles of the clients of the Insured only if the Insured is negligent.

Liquor Liability provides protection for establishments that sell liquor (Packaged liquor, taverns, manufacturers of liquor) against loss or damages claimed as a result of a patron of the business becoming intoxicated and injuring themselves or others.

Inland Marine/ Cargo Liability provides protection for business involved in hauling merchandise and properties of others. It pays for damages of the properties hauled in the event the Insured is liable for the damages.

Time Factors of Liability Insurance Polices

Some commercial liability insurance policies are written on Claim Made Basis. This means that the policy in force at the time a claim against the insured will pay for losses, regardless of when they occurred in the past. Most professional liability policies are written on Claim Made basis. Most commercial liability policies are written on Occurrence Basis, where even though the policy may have expired, provided the policy was in force at the time that the bodily injury or property damage occurred, a claim can still be made against it.

Liability Limits

CSL or Combined Single Limit policies allow insurance companies to combine both bodily injury liability and property damage liability insurance under a single limit. The insurance company would pay up to the stated limit on a third party claim regardless of whether the claim was for bodily or property damage. In Split Limit policies, the policy would break down limits to, for example, bodily injury limit per person and bodily injury limit per accident and property damage per accident.

Business Travel Agents Tips: A Corporate Travellers’ New York Airports Guide

New York City is one of the most popular key travel destinations for corporate travellers worldwide. The city is the center of much that’s great, dynamic and profitable in America. It is home of one of the world’s principal financial centres (i.e. anchored by Wall Street), and a popular business hub for the publishing and entertainment industry at the same time. So, it’s no surprise it features three airports, Newark Liberty International Airport (EWR), LaGuardia Airport (LGA) and J. F. Kennedy International Airport (JFK). As a frequent corporate traveller you probably may have flown to one of the three New York airports at some point or another. With JFK being a major international gateway to the US, this city guide aims to provide some helpful travel agents tips for corporate travellers flying to or from JFK Airport.

New York JFK Facts & Figures

Located about 25km away from Manhattan in Queens, JFK Airport is the largest airport in the state of New York and one of the busiest business travel hubs (over 50 million travellers/year) in the US and internationally. It has six operating terminals (numbered 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8; terminal 6 was demolished in 2011, Terminal 3 in 2013). Currently, the 4th runway is under redevelopment to comply with the needs of Group VI aircraft (until December 2015 as planned so far), which may cause delays, but measures are in place to minimise them, so you shouldn’t be too much affected. With more than 90 airlines arriving and departing from JFK, various business travel solutions for flights to New York can be arranged. Points of origin and destinations include places within the US, Canada, Latin America, Europe, Africa, Asia and Pacific, Australia/New Zealand, basically all over the world. The airport offers corporate travellers a choice of non-stop flights to about 100 international destinations which may prove convenient for your next business trip. However, JFK is very susceptible to weather-related delays due to its position. Corporate travellers are well advised to consider and prepare for possible thunderstorms in summer, causing delays across the US, as well as snow, icing and assorted slush throughout the winter season. For the months between June and November the risk of potential hurricanes is increased.

In general, our business travel agents team advise leisure and corporate travellers to allow plenty of time for getting to and from JFK. Serious traffic incidents on the way between the city and the airport left many wondering whether they’ would be able to make it in time or miss their flight. Furthermore, don’t forget that this is America. Therefore, bear in mind that the TSA rules supreme over security checkpoints. So, take a deep breath and take maybe a book with you or something else to keep you busy. Make sure you arrive early.

Useful JFK terminal facilities for corporate travellers

In most public areas within most terminals, corporate travellers will conveniently find that Wi-Fi is available for free for up to 30min. You can get online near the ticket counters, boarding gates, designated work stations and food courts. The Wi-Fi access is provided by Boingo Wireless Company. If you need to use the internet for longer than 30mins., consider the following options: 1) $4.95 (£3.01, €3.77) per hour (pay as you go), 2) $7.95 (£4.83,€6.05) for unlimited access throughout a 24-hour period (day pass), 3) $9.95 (£6.04,€7.58) per month (unlimited access via a monthly subscription, to be used worldwide), or 4) if you already have a user account, simply log in using your user name and password. ATMs, currency exchange options (Lenlyn or Travelex), a rental phone shop, and more than 100 shops alongside various dining options are available at the terminals.

Ground transportation services from JFK Airport to New York City

The most convenient, stress-free way for travel from and to JFK Airport is to take the AirTrain. It is a cost efficient and helps you make sure you arrive at the airport in time, whilst avoiding possible traffic jams. You can access AirTrain services via the New York City subway system, which is also connected to the Long Island Railroad (LIRR). The journey from/to the city takes just over an hour. AirTrain is operated 24 hours on 365 days a year. Within the airport area, it connects terminals and also enables you to easily access car rental services, hotel shuttle areas and parking lots. At peak times the trains depart every 7 minutes and at off-peak times they go every 15 minutes. However, be clever in choosing your business travel route, as various routes make different stops within the airport. Good news for corporate travellers is that travel within the airport is usually free of charge. However, travel outside the airport is subject to a fee. AirTrain prices generally start from $5 (£3.04, €3.81). For more details on ticket prices are provided on the JFK Airport website under costs and tickets. If you travel via New York’s public transport network, then it is a good idea to use MetroCard, which is widely accepted and is worth to purchase for travel via subway, local trains, or buses. You can find vending machines for buying a MetroCard at Howard Beach and Jamaica Station. A good alternative for corporate travellers would be to take a taxi (for up to 4 passengers). Simply wait in the cab line for a licensed and insured cab to take you to your destination (about $52, i.e. about £31.58, €39.59, flat rate between JFK and Manhattan, excluding tips and tolls). The time for this trip should be about an hour. However, it can take much longer during rush hour.

Shared-ride shuttle services are a cheaper option than taxis, but can involve a lot of waiting and being driven around New York City to drop other people off first. You can find a full list of providers on the airport authority’s website. But remember to tip appropriately, as tipping (around 20% of transfer cost) is quite common and keep in mind that bridge/tunnel tolls are not included in the shared-ride shuttle services fares. Another option is to ask your business travel company to arrange a shuttle service for your trip from and to John F. Kennedy International Airport as prices can vary greatly depending on location and number of passengers. In this way you can ensure that you are travelling with a reliable supplier.

An express bus service is also available for a nominal fee from Penn Station (reachable e.g. by AirTrain or taxi). The service operates from early morning to late night, with buses running at least every half hour.

The airport is also home to several car rental agencies. Leisure and corporate travellers can choose between a number of car major rental companies including Advantage, Thrifty, Dollar, Enterprise, Budget, Hertz, National and Avis.

So, which mode of transport should corporate travellers choose for a trip from JFK to Newark and LaGuardia airports? Usually the best way to get to Newark Airport from JFK Airport is to simply take the AirTrain. However, if you need to travel to LaGuardia during your business trip, it we recommend to take advantage of a convenient shuttle bus service, using the free Route A (running every 10-15 minutes from 4:00am to 11:30pm) or Route B (running every 10-15 minutes from 6:00am to 2:00am). In any case, more details, also for connections to other airports, are available on the JFK Airport Connections page.

Hotels near JFK Airport

Hotel booking services for corporate travellers flying to New York JFK AirportAlthough there are no operating hotels at JFK Airport at the moment, New York provides corporate travellers a huge choice (from budget accommodation to luxury suites) of hotels and motels, which are conveniently located nearby the airport. Most hotel accommodations nearby offer shuttle services. Alternatively you can take the AirTrain to the Federal Circle station and follow the “Courtesy Hotel Shuttles” signs. There are telephone services for the hotel courtesy shuttles located at the AirTrain Federal Circle Station and in the arrival areas of the airport terminals ($5, i.e. about £3.04, €3.81, Service Charge for making reservations). The range of motels and hotels include the Hilton*, the Courtyard* by Marriott, Hampton Inn*, Sheraton*, Hilton Garden, Comfort Inn, Holiday Inn Express, Fairfield Inn* by Marriott, Days Inn, Best Western and Howards Johnson. The ones marked by an * are also offering conference and meeting rooms for corporate events.